Architects – do you know if your team members are embracing your work?

Architects can generate volumes of documentation and models, but who reads them? They can even model these things in tools, but does this ensure the architecture is followed?

My experience is in any project – large or small – you can usually tell if the architecture has become a shared vision by looking at the members’ work spaces to see what they have pinned to the walls. Or the one-pagers they bring to meetings. People will post helpful things in their cube:

• A picture of the reference model/conceptual model – a picture of the shared vision
• A picture showing a typical collaboration of the solution components:

Typical Solution Component Collaboration

• A picture showing the architecture dependencies between the major subsystems which teams are usually formed around.

Solution Component Build Dependencies

Solution Component Build Dependencies

• A picture (i.e. collaboration diagram) depicting a key design pattern meaningful to their work
• A checklist of items to consider before submitting code for the nightly build or sprint
• A high-level diagram that illustrates the flow of artifacts to coordinate a sprint/increment

Configuration Management Centric Development Flow

Configuration Management Centric Development Flow

• A high-level diagram that illustrates how all the key processes relate to each other

Enterprise Modeling to Sprint and Release

Enterprise Modeling to Sprint and Release

If isn’t pinned to their cube it is handy and people will bring them to meetings.

Solution implementation is a fluid thing and these diagrams must evolve. This is performed by a regular architecture/team lead “stand up” meeting. Not stand-up because people have to stand up, but because people are there to discuss items that matter. They are busy and focused on being productive. All subsystem/stream leads are focused on sharing critical items and gaining consensus that will move their team forward.

The facilitator is the lead architect – not because they know more, but because they are a good facilitator and believes a better architecture is made from ensuring the best ideas are leveraged no matter the source. The lead architect (or technical manager or scrum master) does have to have a breadth of knowledge to be able to understand all the topics discussed and ask questions to help the team come to a decision.
The meeting doesn’t talk about status, schedule, or resources. It focuses on the product and topics like:
• Points of integration
• Dependencies
• Alternatives and recommendations to leverage the experience of others
• Shared services
• Recommended patterns, practices, and standards
• Technical issues to be researched and reported on at the next meeting

The meeting can be managed by using many different techniques:
1. When items come up that involve a subset of people, quickly identify the stakeholders and assign a working group to bring a recommendation back
2. If not enough information is available, assign someone to research the additional information
3. If a knowledge gap is apparent, the action item may be for the lead architect to schedule training
4. If the problem appears to be a vendor product issue, the technical person responsible for that vendor relationship takes the action item

Whether you call the facilitator the lead architect, technical manager, scrum master, or servant leader, they are the “glue” of the product and process for the design and build teams.
At the end of the productive meeting, the lead will update:
• The Action Item Log
• The Decision Log
• The Risk Log

Also the lead architect will reflect on additional action items that may be helpful to the team:
• One-on-one discussions to further refine the problem or educate members
• Additional formal training
• Engaging management with the vendor to gain better response time
• Additional tools (e.g. automation scripts) to help the team
• New or revised patterns
• Demos from a team that will help solidify the vision and encourage the team
• Informal sessions from a team member that performs really well on a technique that other people are struggling with

This person, the “glue” is many times invisible and behind the scenes helping the team leads/scrum masters of a team to be successful. They work with management behind the scenes to buffer the team from “necessary but evil” overhead. They encourage team leads when they are frustrated because they have been in that situation before and can empathize. The invisible super glue 🙂

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Building a Bi-Directional Event Bus with the Google Guava

The Google Guava is an open-source project released under Apache License 2.0 (a very permissive one) that bundles several core Java libraries used by Google software engineers in their projects.  The Guava library is packed with powerful utilities and efficient helper classes that aim at making the lives of Java programmers easier and their work more productive.

Generally, Guava offers a more facile way to interact with some of the existing Java language constructs as well as fills in a number of gaps that exist in the language.

For example, shown below is a piece of code that you need to write in order to create a dynamic proxy for some interface Foo using the regular Java constructs:

Foo foo = (Foo) Proxy.newProxyInstance(
Foo.class.getClassLoader(), new Class<?>[] {Foo.class}, handler);

While for some it may be perfectly fine to write code like this and they do write code this way as they believe that “Where there’s muck there’s brass”, others would argue that there is a great deal of unnecessary noise in the above code where after all the pain of getting your ducks in a row in the newProxyInstance() method, you are still forced to do downcasting to Foo.

In the Hakuna Matata world of Guava, the ugly-looking legacy Java Proxy construct (circa Java 1.3) gets hidden under the generified user-friendly API:

Foo fu = Reflection.newProxy(Foo.class, handler);

This Guava construct also enforces type-safety at design-time making casting superfluous as the type of the Lvalue (fu) is inferred from the first parameter passed to the newProxy()method (Foo.class).

That’s what SpringSource has always been so good at: shielding developers from the internal complexity of various systems with their user-friendly API.  They treat developers as valuable clients of their APIs.

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What is Enterprise Architecture and How Can it Give My Business Competitive Advantage?

When we teach Enterprise Architecture, we always ask our students, “What problems do you have that make you want to do Enterprise Architecture?”

The answers tend to have a few themes…

“We have a lot of systems that don’t talk to each other.”

“Our applications have grown to the point that we can’t maintain them.”

“It seems really hard to get new systems done.”

Enterprise Architecture (EA) means different things to different people.  It can mean a description of the IT systems that support a business, including their interactions and plans for long-term evolution.  It can describe the organizational group responsible for developing that architecture.

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The Journey of a Thousand Miles in Architecture Education Begins with One Step – TOGAF 9 training

Reason #1 – The field of architecture is broad and deep

  1. There are multiple architecture methods (Zachman, TOGAF, FEAF, DoDAF, MoDAF, TRAK, etc.)
  2. There are multiple modeling standards (UML, Archimate, SysML, etc.)
  3. There are multiple architecture styles (SOA, MDM, MOM, EAI, etc.)
  4. There are various architecture modeling tools (Sparx EA, Magic Draw, various Rational tools, Troux, etc.)

Reason #2 – TOGAF offers the most comprehensive approach as a starting point

  1. Offers a comprehensive method – The Architecture Development Methodology (ADM)
  2. Offers a slew of techniques (gap analysis, business scenarios, migration planning, stakeholder management, capability-based planning, and etc.) and concrete artifacts (catalogs, matrices, and diagrams)
  3. Covers the four primary architecture domains (business, data, application, and technology) as well as supporting sub-domains (security and interoperability)
  4. Provides two reference models (TRM and III-RM)
  5. Defines a generic governance framework
  6. Defines a capability framework to address the skills, roles, responsibilities, and team structure side of things
  7. Defines a content framework with an underlying meta-model to support relationships and linkages across architectural model elements

Reason #3 – TOGAF Supports Customization

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What is Service Oriented Architecture and Who In My Company Should Be Involved?


Today, organizations of all sizes are adopting Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) for delivery of critical enterprise services. In this post we will discuss what SOA is and who within the organization needs to be involved.

What is Service Oriented Architecture?

Service Oriented Architecture is an architectural style that exposes enterprise assets as services that can be configured and reused in business processes.SOA takes a process-centric view of the enterprise, viewing the enterprise as a collection of business processes. Three critical aspects of SOA are services, business processes and governance.
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Testing Cordova Hybrid Apps in Worklight

Recently I worked on a project that introduced me to IBM® Worklight® mobile application platform. Among other things, I was pleasantly surprised at the price tag of the Developer Edition of this product: it is free. The Developer Edition comes with an Eclipse-based IDE called the Worklight Studio which offers support for authoring the client-side of your mobile web, hybrid and native apps as well as developing server-side components called adapters.

The Worklight Studio comes with a web application called the Mobile Browser Simulator that can help you with developing and testing your hybrid applications created using Apache Cordova framework. The Mobile Browser Simulator offers you a suite of visual controls for simulating a variety of native bridge APIs to such native device capabilities as accelerometer, camera, compass, file system, device info, contacts database, etc., without the need to run your apps directly on mobile devices or their emulators (which would require setting up specific run-time environments, such as ADT Eclipse plug-in for Android, Xcode for iPhone, etc.)

Here is a screen-shot of the Mobile Browser Simulator that shows Cordova APIs’ visual controls/widgets on the left with the expanded Battery widget that helps simulate different battery levels and the battery plugged-in event (fired when the battery is plugged in for charging and stays in this state until un-plugged).
Worklight 6.0 Mobile Browser Simulator Screen

So, if you are interested in this approach to testing Cordova hybrid apps, below are a few simple steps to follow that will help you get up and running in no time.

Note: For this blog posting, I used Worklight ver. 6.0 which comes with Cordova framework ver. 2.6.
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Java EE 8 and beyond

Every new release of the Java EE platform makes it incrementally better by adding new features or simplifying its interfaces which was also the main theme of the latest Java EE ver. 7 release (Oracle press release can be found here).

Let’s review some of the aspects of the new release and touch on the subject of the platform’s potential growth vectors.

 Reduce the boilerplate code.   Is the mission finally accomplished?

One of the repeated topics in each and every Java EE release since version 5 has been “reducing the boilerplate code”.  And it looks like that with the help of meta programming facilities offered by annotations and Contexts and Dependency Injection (CDI) capability introduced in JEE6, this goal has been practically achieved. The latest beneficiary of this exercise is JMS that in EE7 underwent a major overhaul.  The incidental complexity of JEE programming has been reduced to the point beyond which it would require something conceptually similar to emoticons to make it even simpler.  As the old adage goes: “Make things as simple as possible, but not simpler.” So there is probably not too much to expect (or demand) in this department in future releases …


Java in-memory caching API (JCache) did not make it to the final release of Java EE7 and is likely to be included in the JEE8 release.  Not a big deal for those Java developers who know that they can always plug in ready-to-use in-memory cache solutions for Java objects such as the open-source Ehcache product (which is a version of the JCache specification as implemented by Terracotta).

More support for web technologies

JEE7 now offers support for a wider range of web technologies, such as HTML5, WebSockets, and JSON all of which will consolidate its position as a feature rich modern web server platform.  This is a big thing, no doubt.

Currently, JEE already has the servlets, JSPs, JSFs, and facelets with the overall trend toward increased sophistication of Web tier programming which is directly correlated with its growing complexity.

To reduce complexity of Web tier development and potentially draw additional interest in the platform, a move in the opposite direction – toward simplified Web programming models in JEE – may be a viable alternative.  Scripting support from web-aware components like Groovlets or the like may fit the bill.  Another area to explore could be simplified access to business logic via an AJAX-based bridge between JavaScript (or any other browser scripting language that may become popular in future, like Dart and Java modules.  Currently, there are quite a few Java Web Remoting frameworks such as DWR,  Apache Tuscany project (to some extent), and Google Web Toolkit, that can be used as a starting point for the analysis of such systems.

Embracing techniques and ideas from open source projects

Java EE has started to more willingly embrace proven techniques and ideas conceived and developed outside of the realm of Java EE specs.  Under this trend, JEE can effectively (and efficiently) leverage the know-how used in developing systems that are already enjoying a wide adoption in the Java community.  An example of this would be the Contexts and Dependency Injection (CDI) capability built on top of the ideas and concepts underlying the popular Spring and Guice dependency injection systems as well as the Seam context management framework.

Now, without much ado, JEE7 fast-tracked the Batch Processing spec based on the Spring Batch framework (batch jobs are tasks that can be executed without user interaction, such as ETL scripts, etc.).

Support for NoSQL Databases

NoSQL databases are on the curve of gradual adoption in the Enterprise world and this is one of the areas where JEE can take a big piece of the action.

One of the models to emulate is SpringSource’s Spring Data umbrella project that offers Spring-powered data connectors to NoSQL databases, map-reduce frameworks, and cloud-based data stores.

EIS vendors, who wish to expose functionality of their products to the JEE platform in a “standard JEE” way, are always welcome to create JCA-compliant resource adapters for their products thus lending credibility (in the eyes of some conservative executives) to their NoSQL solutions.

This activity needs to go along with an effort to standardize a “NoSQL language” (if one is ever accepted by the very diverse NoSQL database community).  Unstructured Query Language (UnQL) project is a step in this direction.
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Create Better Web Applications With Java EE 6 Training

At Web Age Solutions, we have the challenging task of not only keeping up with technology specifications but whether clients are actually using those technologies.  We have started to see much more interest in Java EE 6 training on various platforms so this is obviously taking hold.

Java EE 6 had the unenviable distinction of being released pretty much right as companies were trying to dig out of the 2008-2009 economic downturn.  So even though it did take 1-2 years for all of the major server platforms to release versions that supported it, many clients were taking a “wait and see” approach to upgrading.  Since companies first have to upgrade to the most recent platform before they can even think about using the new technology that is available it has taken until now to really start seeing that take hold.  Even JBoss clients, which usually take a more “figure it out on our own” approach, are doing training to make sure they can fully take advantage of the latest JBoss version, including the very different administration model (which we cover in our WA2060 JBoss Administration and Clustering course).

One of the primary barriers to taking advantage of what the new platform can do is simply knowing what is available.  Quite often projects take an approach of “we do it this way because we’ve always done it this way” and don’t look for ways to improve and simplify their applications by leveraging new approaches to programming.  With Java EE 6 (and soon Java EE 7) continuing to expand the possibilities that are out there this is becoming more of an issue.  We are a long way from the days when only Servlets/JSP were “standard” and you needed a thick “patterns” book just to create your own web framework.

To further support those that might be looking for Java EE 6 training, I’ve updated all of our course maps for Java EE 6 training on the major platforms.  These course maps show a different path depending on if you are familiar with the big changes introduced in Java EE 5 since several clients often skip versions of a server and in particular we are seeing migration paths like WebSphere 6.1 –> WebSphere 8.x.  These course maps also mention some of the Spring 3 training classes we offer since clients sometimes do training in that area as well.

Java EE 6 Course Map for WebSphere 8.5

Java EE 6 Course Map for WebSphere 8.0

Java EE 6 Course Map for WebLogic 12c

Java EE 6 Course Map for JBoss

Looking to the future, the Java EE 7 specifications are finalized and servers are being updated right now to fully support them.  JBoss is as well and will probably be released early next year (they say this year but JBoss is always missing release deadlines).  The tricky thing is that the open source project is being renamed to “Wildfly” and the “JBoss” name will be reserved for only the supported version.  There is already a version mismatch between the two and now having two different names I think is going to cause more confusion but we will see.

As servers release support for Java EE 7 I think the goal is to try and release classes as early as possible.  This will depend somewhat of course on which servers release support first.  We are going to be working internally to develop ways where we can develop hands-on labs that are more modular and can be more easily reused in different courses so we can start developing those early and support more clients that are “early adopters” and want to upgrade quickly.  Java EE 7 contains a lot of updates as well so we are looking forward to introducing that to clients as they start moving to servers that support it!

Now we get to sit back and enjoy watching the “race” of which server supports Java EE 7 first.  Any bets?

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Accessing EJBs from Java SE Using WebSphere’s Embeddable EJB Container


In this blog, we’ll explore how to employ the Embeddable EJB Container inside a Java SE application using WebSphere Application Server 8.x.

Embeddable EJB Container

One of the new features introduced in EJB 3.1 (part of Java EE 6) is the Embeddable EJB Container. The main two use cases for the Embeddable EJB Container are:

  1. Unit testing your EJBs without requiring a Java EE application server
  2. Embedding EJBs inside a Java SE application, which allows you to take advantage of their benefits (e.g., security and transactions)

The primary advantages of using the Embeddable EJB Container are:

  • You don’t need to install the application server if all you need to do is unit test or employ your EJBs within a Java SE-based application. You just need access to the vendor’s Embeddable EJB Container JAR file.
  • The Embeddable EJB Container starts almost instantaneously, unlike the server-based EJB container (which can take a minute or more to start up), since the Embeddable EJB Container initializes only EJB-related components.
  • The Embeddable EJB Container has a much smaller memory footprint than the equivalent server-based EJB container.

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SOA — when failure is not an option!

I have been working in Service Oriented Architecture for almost a decade. During that time, as a trainer, architect or consultant – I have probably worked with over 100 businesses and government agencies to address their SOA needs. In every case, as we looked at adopting SOA, the perceived benefits were always somewhat theoretical, not that they weren’t real, rather they would not be realized until sometime in the future. For example:

As our SOA implementation matures and we develop a number of reusable enterprise services — new business processes can be created and existing business processes can be modified quickly, with reduced costs and minimal disruption to the enterprise.

Recently I had the opportunity to work with a bank that was looking at SOA in a very different way. Like other organizations looking to adopt SOA they saw the future, long-term benefits. The difference is that this bank also had a very real, tangible short-term goal for their SOA implementation — a goal that gave them no alternative but to succeed, and they were willing to bet their business on it!

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